كتب: ما بعد الانقلاب العسكري الفاشل في تركيا ..... التحديات والسيناريوهات

تقديم

بعد العاشرة بقليل، بتوقيت تركيا الصيفي، من مساء يوم الجمعة، 15 يوليو 2016م شهدت تركيا محاولة انقلاب عسكري دامت تحركاته للسيطرة على المرافق الحيوية قرابة أربع ساعات تابع العالم وقائعها على شاشات الفضائية وحبس الأتراك أنفاسهم، ولكن سرعان ما توالت المؤشرات بسرعة بالغة على أن الانقلاب يفشل، ورغم أن المحاولة الانقلابية على الحكم الديمقراطي في تركيا تميزت بالعدد الكبير والمهم للقوات العسكرية المشاركة فيها وباتساعها وبعُنفها، لكن تصميم القيادة التركية على المقاومة والتفاف الشعب التركي وكافة القوى السياسية والمدنية حولها أفشل الانقلاب، وفتح الباب أمام إحداث تغييرات كبيرة داخل بنية الدولة التركية.

وتباينت ردود الأفعال الدولية إزاء محاولة الانقلاب العسكري الفاشلة حيث كشف تعاطي وسائل الإعلام المحلية والإقليمية والدولية مع الحدث الجلل عن مدى تباين المواقف المؤيدة والرافضة، وتوالت التداعيات داخل تركيا وخارجها وتكشفت خيوط الانقلاب رويداً رويداً فيما اتخذت القيادة التركية إجراءات حاسمة مع الانقلابيين، قوبلت بتخوفات ورسائل دولية تعقيباً على هذه الإجراءات التي كان لها ما بعدها.

وإزاء هذه التداعيات عقدت مجموعة التفكير الإستراتيجي يوم 13 أغسطس 2016م ندوة بحثية بعنوان «ما بعد الانقلاب الفاشل في تركيا»، واستضافت مجموعة من الخبراء والسياسيين والمفكرين لمناقشة تداعيات هذا الانقلاب وطرح أفكار حول التحديات والسيناريوهات المتوقعة على الصعيد المحلى والإقليمي والدولي لوضع تصور تقدير موقف مناسب لما بعد الانقلاب، ويعد هذا الإصدار سجلاً للندوة البحثية لتستفيد منه كل المؤسسات والخبراء فى مجال التفكير الإستراتيجي. 

 

هذا المقال يعبر عن رأي كاتبه ولا يعبر بالضرورة عن رأي مجموعة التفكير الاستراتيجي

تحميل المرفقات:
قيم هذا العنصر
(0 تصويتات)

201 تعليقات

  • Nilda

    Nilda - السبت، 02 أيلول/سبتمبر 2017

    I'm really impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your blog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it's rare to see a great
    blog like this one nowadays.

    ابلاغ
  • Vern

    Vern - السبت، 02 أيلول/سبتمبر 2017

    I was suggested this website by my cousin. I am not
    sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else
    know such detailed about my trouble. You are wonderful!
    Thanks!

    ابلاغ
  • Leila

    Leila - السبت، 02 أيلول/سبتمبر 2017

    hello!,I really like your writing so so much! share we keep
    up a correspondence more approximately your article
    on AOL? I need a specialist in this space to resolve my
    problem. Maybe that is you! Having a look forward to see you.

    ابلاغ
  • Hugh

    Hugh - السبت، 02 أيلول/سبتمبر 2017

    Facebook will certainly after that let you promote the Team by releasing to your wall or inviting pals.

    ابلاغ
  • Micki

    Micki - السبت، 02 أيلول/سبتمبر 2017

    Impotence, often known as erectile dysfunction or ED, is
    a situation during which a man is unable to get or hold an erection lengthy
    sufficient to have a passable intercourse life. Impotence is a typical drawback, affecting as much as half of Australian males between the ages of forty and
    70 years. The chance of growing erectile dysfunction will increase as you get
    older.


    In the previous, docs thought of impotence to be a
    primarily psychological drawback, attributable to efficiency anxiety or stress.

    Now, docs know that many circumstances of impotence have a bodily trigger,
    which often might be handled. Typically, a mix of bodily and psychological components contributes to erectile dysfunction.


    Physical causes of impotence

    Physical causes of impotence can embody:


    Some medicines can contribute to impotence, as can some sorts of
    surgical procedure and radiotherapy therapies.


    Blocked blood vessels to the penis

    A quite common trigger of impotence is when blood stream
    into the penis is lowered. This may be attributable to
    atherosclerosis, also referred to as hardening of the arteries.
    In atherosclerosis, the arteries are clogged and narrowed,
    leading to diminished blood circulate.


    Risk elements for atherosclerosis embody:

    If your erection issues are attributable to
    atherosclerosis, there's an opportunity that the
    arteries in different components of your physique (e.g.
    the coronary arteries that provide your coronary heart) are additionally
    affected by atherosclerosis. Actually, erection issues could also be the primary
    signal that you're liable to coronary coronary heart illness.



    Because the arteries to the penis are narrower than these to the guts, it's possible you'll develop signs of erectile dysfunction earlier
    than you expertise any signs of coronary heart illness, comparable to angina.
    So seeing your physician about erection issues could
    also be essential to your total bodily well being.



    Impotence will also be attributable to a blood clot that prevents sufficient blood from flowing
    into the penis to trigger an erection.


    Venous leakage

    In some males, blood can circulate in to the penis simply, however the issue is that it leaks out once more,
    so an erection can't be sustained. This is known as venous leakage.
    Docs aren't sure of the reason for venous leakage, however they'll carry
    out surgical procedure to assist restore it.


    Medicines that may cause impotence

    Many medicines could cause erection issues as a facet impact,
    together with:


    If you expertise impotence after beginning a brand new treatment, inform your physician, who might be able to prescribe a unique medication for you.

    Do not cease taking a medication with out first consulting your physician.
    You must also inform your physician about any over-the-counter medicines or complementary treatments you could also be taking.



    The following desk incorporates an inventory of particular medicines which will trigger
    or contribute to erectile dysfunction. This checklist might not cowl all varieties of medicines that could cause erectile dysfunction, so all the time ask your physician in case
    you are in doubt. Additionally, for a few of these medicines ED is
    a really uncommon facet impact. Most males taking these medicines
    don't expertise erectile dysfunction.


    *The names in brackets are just a few examples
    of the commerce names every particular drugs is marketed beneath in Australia.
    The drugs could even be recognized by different commerce names.




    Diabetes and erectile dysfunction

    Men who've diabetes have a better danger of growing impotence than different males.
    Diabetes contributes to impotence as a result of it might harm blood vessels and trigger a sort of nerve injury often called peripheral neuropathy.



    Hormones and impotence

    Low ranges of the male hormone, testosterone, are extra generally linked
    to a lowered intercourse drive, fairly than impotence itself.
    Solely a small proportion of instances of impotence are attributable
    to hormone deficiency.


    Low testosterone ranges could also be the results of a situation referred to as hypogonadism, through which the testicles do not
    produce sufficient testosterone. Extra not often, low
    testosterone might be attributable to the pituitary (a small gland at the
    bottom of the mind) not secreting adequate hormones to stimulate the testes
    to provide testosterone. The pituitary can also be typically affected by small
    benign (non-cancerous) tumours that secrete prolactin, one other hormone
    that may cause impotence.


    Mildly decreased ranges of testosterone are sometimes not on account of particular testicular or pituitary issues,
    however fairly stress or depression. In this example, testosterone substitute
    is never of any profit.


    Other hormone issues, together with thyroid illness, can even trigger impotence.


    Prostate most cancers and erectile dysfunction


    The superior phases of prostate most cancers can have an effect on the nerves and arteries which can be very important for an erection.


    Radiation therapy for prostate most cancers can hurt the
    erectile tissues of the penis, and prostate most cancers surgical procedure could cause
    nerve or artery harm to the penis.


    Treatment for superior prostate most cancers usually consists
    of medicines that counteract testosterone, and generally trigger
    erectile dysfunction in addition to lack of sexual curiosity.



    Peyronie's illness

    Peyronie's illness is an unusual situation that impacts a man's intercourse life as a result of
    his penis curves abnormally and causes ache
    when he has an erection. He may even be unable
    to have a tough erection. The curvature
    of the penis is attributable to a scar, referred to as a
    plaque, that varieties within the penis.


    Other bodily causes of impotence

    Several different components and situations can contribute to erectile dysfunction, together with the next.



    Psychological causes of impotence

    Most circumstances of impotence have bodily causes, however, in some males, psychological elements are the principle contributors to impotence.



    Impotence that is triggered by psychological elements is
    extra widespread in males who're sexually inexperienced.
    Psychological erectile dysfunction might solely happen when you are with only one explicit individual.
    You are additionally extra prone to have morning erections, and be
    capable to have an erection while you masturbate, than males whose impotence has
    a bodily trigger.


    Here are some psychological elements that may have an effect in your erections.


    Stress and anxiety


    When you are pressured and specializing in different
    points other than intercourse, you may discover that you do not
    need to have intercourse as typically and there could be a drop in your means
    to carry out if you do attempt. You would
    possibly discover that tackling the supply of your stress can have advantages within the bedroom as properly.



    Fear of failure

    Anxiety about your sexual prowess (generally referred to as efficiency anxiety)
    can, in itself, contribute to failure. By placing strain on your self,
    you turn out to be too anxious to get an sufficient erection.


    Most males expertise remoted episodes of erectile failure.
    Even when the transient bodily trigger has handed, anxiety that it could recur is enough to forestall erection.
    Anxiety, whether or not about one thing particularly
    sexual or a part of a wider anxiety syndrome, isn't useful to good sexual
    operate.


    Problems along with your relationship and impotence

    Impotence could also be a manifestation of a poor relationship, or a
    problematic time in a relationship. Sexual boredom, tension or anger amongst companions, and
    lack of intimacy and communication are all attainable triggers of erectile dysfunction. In these circumstances, seeing a counsellor might assist.




    It's price remembering that impotence is a fancy medical situation, which can have multiple trigger.
    For instance, if impotence is the results of a facet impact of medication or an underlying illness, the anxiety brought on by lack of efficiency could perpetuate the erectile dysfunction even after the bodily trigger has been handled.

    ابلاغ
  • Jolene

    Jolene - السبت، 02 أيلول/سبتمبر 2017

    View the 2017 street cleaning map as well as schedule for streets with car parking on one side only or click the photo below.

    ابلاغ
  • Daisy

    Daisy - الجمعة، 01 أيلول/سبتمبر 2017

    An example of personalized tab/app for your Facebook page is what I
    presently utilize to obtain clients in addition to likes
    for special business and marketing suggestions.

    ابلاغ
  • Candida

    Candida - الجمعة، 01 أيلول/سبتمبر 2017

    Deep cleansing power and continual home heating capacities make certain maximum performance
    and premium cleansing performance.

    ابلاغ
  • Kevin

    Kevin - الجمعة، 01 أيلول/سبتمبر 2017

    Hello, i feel that i saw you visited my weblog thus i got here to return the prefer?.I'm attempting to to find issues to
    enhance my web site!I suppose its adequate to make use
    of a few of your ideas!!

    ابلاغ
  • Hilda

    Hilda - الجمعة، 01 أيلول/سبتمبر 2017

    What's up to all, how is all, I think every one is getting more from this site, and your views are
    fastidious in support of new users.

    ابلاغ

اترك تعليقا

استطلاع رأي !

ما رأيك في موقعنا الجديد !

مرئيات

انضم لقائمتنا البريدية

للأعلي